PSR-7 Meta Document

HTTP Message Meta Document

1. Summary

The purpose of this proposal is to provide a set of common interfaces for HTTP messages as described in RFC 7230 and RFC 7231, and URIs as described in RFC 3986 (in the context of HTTP messages).

  • RFC 7230:
  • RFC 7231:
  • RFC 3986:

All HTTP messages consist of the HTTP protocol version being used, headers, and a message body. A Request builds on the message to include the HTTP method used to make the request, and the URI to which the request is made. A Response includes the HTTP status code and reason phrase.

In PHP, HTTP messages are used in two contexts:

  • To send an HTTP request, via the ext/curl extension, PHP's native stream layer, etc., and process the received HTTP response. In other words, HTTP messages are used when using PHP as an HTTP client.
  • To process an incoming HTTP request to the server, and return an HTTP response to the client making the request. PHP can use HTTP messages when used as a server-side application to fulfill HTTP requests.

This proposal presents an API for fully describing all parts of the various HTTP messages within PHP.

2. HTTP Messages in PHP

PHP does not have built-in support for HTTP messages.

Client-side HTTP support

PHP supports sending HTTP requests via several mechanisms:

PHP streams are the most convenient and ubiquitous way to send HTTP requests, but pose a number of limitations with regards to properly configuring SSL support, and provide a cumbersome interface around setting things such as headers. cURL provides a complete and expanded feature-set, but, as it is not a default extension, is often not present. The http extension suffers from the same problem as cURL, as well as the fact that it has traditionally had far fewer examples of usage.

Most modern HTTP client libraries tend to abstract the implementation, to ensure they can work on whatever environment they are executed on, and across any of the above layers.

Server-side HTTP Support

PHP uses Server APIs (SAPI) to interpret incoming HTTP requests, marshal input, and pass off handling to scripts. The original SAPI design mirrored Common Gateway Interface, which would marshal request data and push it into environment variables before passing delegation to a script; the script would then pull from the environment variables in order to process the request and return a response.

PHP's SAPI design abstracts common input sources such as cookies, query string arguments, and url-encoded POST content via superglobals ($_COOKIE, $_GET, and $_POST, respectively), providing a layer of convenience for web developers.

On the response side of the equation, PHP was originally developed as a templating language, and allows intermixing HTML and PHP; any HTML portions of a file are immediately flushed to the output buffer. Modern applications and frameworks eschew this practice, as it can lead to issues with regards to emitting a status line and/or response headers; they tend to aggregate all headers and content, and emit them at once when all other application processing is complete. Special care needs to be paid to ensure that error reporting and other actions that send content to the output buffer do not flush the output buffer.

3. Why Bother?

HTTP messages are used in a wide number of PHP projects -- both clients and servers. In each case, we observe one or more of the following patterns or situations:

  1. Projects use PHP's superglobals directly.
  2. Projects will create implementations from scratch.
  3. Projects may require a specific HTTP client/server library that provides HTTP message implementations.
  4. Projects may create adapters for common HTTP message implementations.

As examples:

  1. Just about any application that began development before the rise of frameworks, which includes a number of very popular CMS, forum, and shopping cart systems, have historically used superglobals.
  2. Frameworks such as Symfony and Zend Framework each define HTTP components that form the basis of their MVC layers; even small, single-purpose libraries such as oauth2-server-php provide and require their own HTTP request/response implementations. Guzzle, Buzz, and other HTTP client implementations each create their own HTTP message implementations as well.
  3. Projects such as Silex, Stack, and Drupal 8 have hard dependencies on Symfony's HTTP kernel. Any SDK built on Guzzle has a hard requirement on Guzzle's HTTP message implementations.
  4. Projects such as Geocoder create redundant adapters for common libraries.

Direct usage of superglobals has a number of concerns. First, these are mutable, which makes it possible for libraries and code to alter the values, and thus alter state for the application. Additionally, superglobals make unit and integration testing difficult and brittle, leading to code quality degradation.

In the current ecosystem of frameworks that implement HTTP message abstractions, the net result is that projects are not capable of interoperability or cross-pollination. In order to consume code targeting one framework from another, the first order of business is building a bridge layer between the HTTP message implementations. On the client-side, if a particular library does not have an adapter you can utilize, you need to bridge the request/response pairs if you wish to use an adapter from another library.

Finally, when it comes to server-side responses, PHP gets in its own way: any content emitted before a call to header() will result in that call becoming a no-op; depending on error reporting settings, this can often mean headers and/or response status are not correctly sent. One way to work around this is to use PHP's output buffering features, but nesting of output buffers can become problematic and difficult to debug. Frameworks and applications thus tend to create response abstractions for aggregating headers and content that can be emitted at once - and these abstractions are often incompatible.

Thus, the goal of this proposal is to abstract both client- and server-side request and response interfaces in order to promote interoperability between projects. If projects implement these interfaces, a reasonable level of compatibility may be assumed when adopting code from different libraries.

It should be noted that the goal of this proposal is not to obsolete the current interfaces utilized by existing PHP libraries. This proposal is aimed at interoperability between PHP packages for the purpose of describing HTTP messages.

4. Scope

4.1 Goals

  • Provide the interfaces needed for describing HTTP messages.
  • Focus on practical applications and usability.
  • Define the interfaces to model all elements of the HTTP message and URI specifications.
  • Ensure that the API does not impose arbitrary limits on HTTP messages. For example, some HTTP message bodies can be too large to store in memory, so we must account for this.
  • Provide useful abstractions both for handling incoming requests for server-side applications and for sending outgoing requests in HTTP clients.

4.2 Non-Goals

  • This proposal does not expect all HTTP client libraries or server-side frameworks to change their interfaces to conform. It is strictly meant for interoperability.
  • While everyone's perception of what is and is not an implementation detail varies, this proposal should not impose implementation details. As RFCs 7230, 7231, and 3986 do not force any particular implementation, there will be a certain amount of invention needed to describe HTTP message interfaces in PHP.

5. Design Decisions

Message design

The MessageInterface provides accessors for the elements common to all HTTP messages, whether they are for requests or responses. These elements include:

  • HTTP protocol version (e.g., "1.0", "1.1")
  • HTTP headers
  • HTTP message body

More specific interfaces are used to describe requests and responses, and more specifically the context of each (client- vs. server-side). These divisions are partly inspired by existing PHP usage, but also by other languages such as Ruby's Rack, Python's WSGI, Go's http package, Node's http module, etc.

Why are there header methods on messages rather than in a header bag?

The message itself is a container for the headers (as well as the other message properties). How these are represented internally is an implementation detail, but uniform access to headers is a responsibility of the message.

Why are URIs represented as objects?

URIs are values, with identity defined by the value, and thus should be modeled as value objects.

Additionally, URIs contain a variety of segments which may be accessed many times in a given request -- and which would require parsing the URI in order to determine (e.g., via parse_url()). Modeling URIs as value objects allows parsing once only, and simplifies access to individual segments. It also provides convenience in client applications by allowing users to create new instances of a base URI instance with only the segments that change (e.g., updating the path only).

Why does the request interface have methods for dealing with the request-target AND compose a URI?

RFC 7230 details the request line as containing a "request-target". Of the four forms of request-target, only one is a URI compliant with RFC 3986; the most common form used is origin-form, which represents the URI without the scheme or authority information. Moreover, since all forms are valid for purposes of requests, the proposal must accommodate each.

RequestInterface thus has methods relating to the request-target. By default, it will use the composed URI to present an origin-form request-target, and, in the absence of a URI instance, return the string "/". Another method, withRequestTarget(), allows specifying an instance with a specific request-target, allowing users to create requests that use one of the other valid request-target forms.

The URI is kept as a discrete member of the request for a variety of reasons. For both clients and servers, knowledge of the absolute URI is typically required. In the case of clients, the URI, and specifically the scheme and authority details, is needed in order to make the actual TCP connection. For server-side applications, the full URI is often required in order to validate the request or to route to an appropriate handler.

Why value objects?

The proposal models messages and URIs as value objects.

Messages are values where the identity is the aggregate of all parts of the message; a change to any aspect of the message is essentially a new message. This is the very definition of a value object. The practice by which changes result in a new instance is termed immutability, and is a feature designed to ensure the integrity of a given value.

The proposal also recognizes that most clients and server-side applications will need to be able to easily update message aspects, and, as such, provides interface methods that will create new message instances with the updates. These are generally prefixed with the verbiage with or without.

Value objects provides several benefits when modeling HTTP messages:

  • Changes in URI state cannot alter the request composing the URI instance.
  • Changes in headers cannot alter the message composing them.

In essence, modeling HTTP messages as value objects ensures the integrity of the message state, and prevents the need for bi-directional dependencies, which can often go out-of-sync or lead to debugging or performance issues.

For HTTP clients, they allow consumers to build a base request with data such as the base URI and required headers, without needing to build a brand new request or reset request state for each message the client sends:

$uri = new Uri('');
$baseRequest = new Request($uri, null, [
    'Authorization' => 'Bearer ' . $token,
    'Accept'        => 'application/json',

$request = $baseRequest->withUri($uri->withPath('/user'))->withMethod('GET');
$response = $client->sendRequest($request);

// get user id from $response

$body = new StringStream(json_encode(['tasks' => [
$request = $baseRequest
    ->withUri($uri->withPath('/tasks/user/' . $userId))
    ->withHeader('Content-Type', 'application/json')
$response = $client->sendRequest($request)

// No need to overwrite headers or body!
$request = $baseRequest->withUri($uri->withPath('/tasks'))->withMethod('GET');
$response = $client->sendRequest($request);

On the server-side, developers will need to:

  • Deserialize the request message body.
  • Decrypt HTTP cookies.
  • Write to the response.

These operations can be accomplished with value objects as well, with a number of benefits:

  • The original request state can be stored for retrieval by any consumer.
  • A default response state can be created with default headers and/or message body.

Most popular PHP frameworks have fully mutable HTTP messages today. The main changes necessary in consuming true value objects are:

  • Instead of calling setter methods or setting public properties, mutator methods will be called, and the result assigned.
  • Developers must notify the application on a change in state.

As an example, in Zend Framework 2, instead of the following:

function (MvcEvent $e)
    $response = $e->getResponse();
    $response->setHeaderLine('x-foo', 'bar');

one would now write:

function (MvcEvent $e)
    $response = $e->getResponse();
        $response->withHeader('x-foo', 'bar')

The above combines assignment and notification in a single call.

This practice has a side benefit of making explicit any changes to application state being made.

New instances vs returning $this

One observation made on the various with*() methods is that they can likely safely return $this; if the argument presented will not result in a change in the value. One rationale for doing so is performance (as this will not result in a cloning operation).

The various interfaces have been written with verbiage indicating that immutability MUST be preserved, but only indicate that "an instance" must be returned containing the new state. Since instances that represent the same value are considered equal, returning $this is functionally equivalent, and thus allowed.

Using streams instead of X

MessageInterface uses a body value that must implement StreamInterface. This design decision was made so that developers can send and receive (and/or receive and send) HTTP messages that contain more data than can practically be stored in memory while still allowing the convenience of interacting with message bodies as a string. While PHP provides a stream abstraction by way of stream wrappers, stream resources can be cumbersome to work with: stream resources can only be cast to a string using stream_get_contents() or manually reading the remainder of a string. Adding custom behavior to a stream as it is consumed or populated requires registering a stream filter; however, stream filters can only be added to a stream after the filter is registered with PHP (i.e., there is no stream filter autoloading mechanism).

The use of a well- defined stream interface allows for the potential of flexible stream decorators that can be added to a request or response pre-flight to enable things like encryption, compression, ensuring that the number of bytes downloaded reflects the number of bytes reported in the Content-Length of a response, etc. Decorating streams is a well-established pattern in the Java and Node communities that allows for very flexible streams.

The majority of the StreamInterface API is based on Python's io module, which provides a practical and consumable API. Instead of implementing stream capabilities using something like a WritableStreamInterface and ReadableStreamInterface, the capabilities of a stream are provided by methods like isReadable(), isWritable(), etc. This approach is used by Python, C#, C++, Ruby, Node, and likely others.

What if I just want to return a file?

In some cases, you may want to return a file from the filesystem. The typical way to do this in PHP is one of the following:


stream_copy_to_stream(fopen($filename, 'r'), fopen('php://output', 'w'));

Note that the above omits sending appropriate Content-Type and Content-Length headers; the developer would need to emit these prior to calling the above code.

The equivalent using HTTP messages would be to use a StreamInterface implementation that accepts a filename and/or stream resource, and to provide this to the response instance. A complete example, including setting appropriate headers:

// where Stream is a concrete StreamInterface:
$stream   = new Stream($filename);
$finfo    = new finfo(FILEINFO_MIME);
$response = $response
    ->withHeader('Content-Type', $finfo->file($filename))
    ->withHeader('Content-Length', (string) filesize($filename))

Emitting this response will send the file to the client.

What if I want to directly emit output?

Directly emitting output (e.g. via echo, printf, or writing to the php://output stream) is generally only advisable as a performance optimization or when emitting large data sets. If it needs to be done and you still wish to work in an HTTP message paradigm, one approach would be to use a callback-based StreamInterface implementation, per this example. Wrap any code emitting output directly in a callback, pass that to an appropriate StreamInterface implementation, and provide it to the message body:

$output = new CallbackStream(function () use ($request) {
    printf("The requested URI was: %s<br>\n", $request->getUri());
    return '';
return (new Response())
    ->withHeader('Content-Type', 'text/html')

What if I want to use an iterator for content?

Ruby's Rack implementation uses an iterator-based approach for server-side response message bodies. This can be emulated using an HTTP message paradigm via an iterator-backed StreamInterface approach, as detailed in the psr7examples repository.

Why are streams mutable?

The StreamInterface API includes methods such as write() which can change the message content -- which directly contradicts having immutable messages.

The problem that arises is due to the fact that the interface is intended to wrap a PHP stream or similar. A write operation therefore will proxy to writing to the stream. Even if we made StreamInterface immutable, once the stream has been updated, any instance that wraps that stream will also be updated -- making immutability impossible to enforce.

Our recommendation is that implementations use read-only streams for server-side requests and client-side responses.

Rationale for ServerRequestInterface

The RequestInterface and ResponseInterface have essentially 1:1 correlations with the request and response messages described in RFC 7230. They provide interfaces for implementing value objects that correspond to the specific HTTP message types they model.

For server-side applications there are other considerations for incoming requests:

  • Access to server parameters (potentially derived from the request, but also potentially the result of server configuration, and generally represented via the $_SERVER superglobal; these are part of the PHP Server API (SAPI)).
  • Access to the query string arguments (usually encapsulated in PHP via the $_GET superglobal).
  • Access to the parsed body (i.e., data deserialized from the incoming request body; in PHP, this is typically the result of POST requests using application/x-www-form-urlencoded content types, and encapsulated in the $_POST superglobal, but for non-POST, non-form-encoded data, could be an array or an object).
  • Access to uploaded files (encapsulated in PHP via the $_FILES superglobal).
  • Access to cookie values (encapsulated in PHP via the $_COOKIE superglobal).
  • Access to attributes derived from the request (usually, but not limited to, those matched against the URL path).

Uniform access to these parameters increases the viability of interoperability between frameworks and libraries, as they can now assume that if a request implements ServerRequestInterface, they can get at these values. It also solves problems within the PHP language itself:

  • Until 5.6.0, php://input was read-once; as such, instantiating multiple request instances from multiple frameworks/libraries could lead to inconsistent state, as the first to access php://input would be the only one to receive the data.
  • Unit testing against superglobals (e.g., $_GET, $_FILES, etc.) is difficult and typically brittle. Encapsulating them inside the ServerRequestInterface implementation eases testing considerations.

Why "parsed body" in the ServerRequestInterface?

Arguments were made to use the terminology "BodyParams", and require the value to be an array, with the following rationale:

  • Consistency with other server-side parameter access.
  • $_POST is an array, and the 80% use case would target that superglobal.
  • A single type makes for a strong contract, simplifying usage.

The main argument is that if the body parameters are an array, developers have predictable access to values:

$foo = isset($request->getBodyParams()['foo'])
    ? $request->getBodyParams()['foo']
    : null;

The argument for using "parsed body" was made by examining the domain. A message body can contain literally anything. While traditional web applications use forms and submit data using POST, this is a use case that is quickly being challenged in current web development trends, which are often API-centric, and thus use alternate request methods (notably PUT and PATCH), as well as non-form-encoded content (generally JSON or XML) that can be coerced to arrays in many cases, but in many cases also cannot or should not.

If forcing the property representing the parsed body to be only an array, developers then need a shared convention about where to put the results of parsing the body. These might include:

  • A special key under the body parameters, such as __parsed__.
  • A specially named attribute, such as __body__.

The end result is that a developer now has to look in multiple locations:

$data = $request->getBodyParams();
if (isset($data['__parsed__']) && is_object($data['__parsed__'])) {
    $data = $data['__parsed__'];

// or:
$data = $request->getBodyParams();
if ($request->hasAttribute('__body__')) {
    $data = $request->getAttribute('__body__');

The solution presented is to use the terminology "ParsedBody", which implies that the values are the results of parsing the message body. This also means that the return value will be ambiguous; however, because this is an attribute of the domain, this is also expected. As such, usage will become:

$data = $request->getParsedBody();
if (! $data instanceof \stdClass) {
    // raise an exception!
// otherwise, we have what we expected

This approach removes the limitations of forcing an array, at the expense of ambiguity of return value. Considering that the other suggested solutions — pushing the parsed data into a special body parameter key or into an attribute — also suffer from ambiguity, the proposed solution is simpler as it does not require additions to the interface specification. Ultimately, the ambiguity enables the flexibility required when representing the results of parsing the body.

Why is no functionality included for retrieving the "base path"?

Many frameworks provide the ability to get the "base path," usually considered the path up to and including the front controller. As an example, if the application is served at, and the current URI used to request it is, the functionality to retrieve the base path would return /b2b/index.php. This value can then be used by routers to strip that path segment prior to attempting a match.

This value is often also then used for URI generation within applications; parameters will be passed to the router, which will generate the path, and prefix it with the base path in order to return a fully-qualified URI. Other tools — typically view helpers, template filters, or template functions — are used to resolve a path relative to the base path in order to generate a URI for linking to resources such as static assets.

On examination of several different implementations, we noticed the following:

  • The logic for determining the base path varies widely between implementations. As an example, compare the logic in ZF2 to the logic in Symfony 2.
  • Most implementations appear to allow manual injection of a base path to the router and/or any facilities used for URI generation.
  • The primary use cases — routing and URI generation — typically are the only consumers of the functionality; developers usually do not need to be aware of the base path concept as other objects take care of that detail for them. As examples:
    • A router will strip off the base path for you during routing; you do not need to pass the modified path to the router.
    • View helpers, template filters, etc. typically are injected with a base path prior to invocation. Sometimes this is manually done, though more often it is the result of framework wiring.
  • All sources necessary for calculating the base path are already in the RequestInterface instance, via server parameters and the URI instance.

Our stance is that base path detection is framework and/or application specific, and the results of detection can be easily injected into objects that need it, and/or calculated as needed using utility functions and/or classes from the RequestInterface instance itself.

Why does getUploadedFiles() return objects instead of arrays?

getUploadedFiles() returns a tree of Psr\Http\Message\UploadedFileInterface instances. This is done primarily to simplify specification: instead of requiring paragraphs of implementation specification for an array, we specify an interface.

Additionally, the data in an UploadedFileInterface is normalized to work in both SAPI and non-SAPI environments. This allows the creation of processes to parse the message body manually and assign contents to streams without first writing to the filesystem, while still allowing proper handling of file uploads in SAPI environments.

What about "special" header values?

A number of header values contain unique representation requirements which can pose problems both for consumption as well as generation; in particular, cookies and the Accept header.

This proposal does not provide any special treatment of any header types. The base MessageInterface provides methods for header retrieval and setting, and all header values are, in the end, string values.

Developers are encouraged to write commodity libraries for interacting with these header values, either for the purposes of parsing or generation. Users may then consume these libraries when needing to interact with those values. Examples of this practice already exist in libraries such as willdurand/Negotiation and Aura.Accept. So long as the object has functionality for casting the value to a string, these objects can be used to populate the headers of an HTTP message.

6. People

6.1 Editor(s)

  • Matthew Weier O'Phinney

6.2 Sponsors

  • Paul M. Jones
  • Beau Simensen (coordinator)

6.3 Contributors

  • Michael Dowling
  • Larry Garfield
  • Evert Pot
  • Tobias Schultze
  • Bernhard Schussek
  • Anton Serdyuk
  • Phil Sturgeon
  • Chris Wilkinson

7. Errata

7.1 Validation of Header Names and Values

Some special characters within the name or value of an HTTP header might affect the parsing of the serialized message in a way that the contents of unrelated headers are changed. This misparsing can open up an application to security vulnerabilities. A common type of vulnerability is CRLF injection, allowing an attacker to inject additional headers or to end the list of headers early.

For this reason classes implementing the MessageInterface SHOULD strictly validate the header names and contents according to the most recent HTTP specification (RFC 7230#3.2 at the time of writing). The implementation SHOULD reject invalid values and SHOULD NOT make any attempt to automatically correct the provided values.

A minimally viable validator is expected to reject header names containing the following characters:

  • NUL (0x00)
  • \r (0x0D)
  • \n (0x0A)
  • Any character less than or equal to 0x20.

Further characters or sequences in header names should be rejected according to the HTTP specification.

A minimally viable validator is expected to reject header values containing the following characters:

  • NUL (0x00)
  • \r (0x0D)
  • \n (0x0A)

If compatibility with older systems is desired then the sequence \r\n (0x0D0A) within a header value MAY be accepted if and only if it is immediately followed by either SPACE (0x20) or \t (0x09). The full sequence SHOULD then internally be normalized to a single SPACE (0x20).

Further characters or sequences in header values should be rejected according to the HTTP specification.

7.2 Type Additions

The 1.1 release of the psr/http-message package includes scalar parameter types. The 2.0 release of the package includes return types. This structure leverages PHP 7.2 covariance support to allow for a gradual upgrade process, but requires PHP 8.0 for type compatibility.

Implementers MAY add return types to their own packages at their discretion, provided that:

  • the return types match those in the 2.0 package.
  • the implementation specifies a minimum PHP version of 7.2.0 or later.

Implementers MAY add parameter types to their own packages in a new major release, either at the same time as adding return types or in a subsequent release, provided that:

  • the parameter types match those in the 1.1 package.
  • the implementation specifies a minimum PHP version of 7.2.0 or later.
  • the implementation depends on "psr/http-message": "^1.1 || ^2.0" so as to exclude the untyped 1.0 version.

Implementers are encouraged but not required to transition their packages toward the 2.0 version of the package at their earliest convenience.

7.3 Escaping User Info

Some characters are reserved in the user info part of the authority section. According to (RFC3986 2.2 and 3.2.1)[], the reserved characters are "/" / "?" / "#" / "[" / "]" / "@". Additionally, : must be encoded when in the username because it is used to separate username and password.

UriInterface::withUserInfo() MUST NOT double encode reserved characters.

UriInterface::getUserInfo() MUST encode the reserved characters according to RFC3986 when returning the authority. If there is a password, the : between username and password MUST NOT be encoded.